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By : Mihir Jhaveri, Oracle Supply Chain Management Head, Bristlecone India
Industry : Transportation/Aviation Functional Area : Business Processes
Activity:  1 comments  770 views  last activity : 07 06 2010 20:18:04 +0000

Kindly find the general functional KPI for Seaport.
Cargo & Vessel Dwell Time: The duration for which an entity (cargo or vessel) stays in the port for service is called dwell time of the entity. In the port parlance, the entities are mainly the vessel and cargo /containers. The time cargo / container remains in a terminal’s in-transit storage area while awaiting shipment by vessels in exports or evacuation by rail / road in imports adds on to costs and demurrages beyond stipulated time limits. Delays that prolong the dwell time may be caused on account of cargo as also on vessel account and entail financial costs.

Vessel related dwell time:
From the time a vessel reports at anchorage to the time it is cast-off from the berth, is the Turn Round Time for the vessel. Dwell time of cargo/container and vessel broadly reflects the efficiency of the port. Thus measures adopted to reduce the dwell time have an influence on the efficiency of the port as also of the use of vessel hire time and laycan requirement.
Pre-Berthing Detention: This is the time taken by a ship from its arrival at the anchorage (reporting station) till it starts its movement to the working berth, i.e., operational berth. Pre berthing detention is a component of the total turnaround time and any increase in the pre-berthing detention thus correspondingly increasing what is termed as the Turn Round Time. Berthing shortages at ports or excess vessel traffic at ports typically result in pre-berthing detention. Continued berthing delays at any port can lead to eventual loss of vessel and cargo traffic.
Average Ship Turnaround Time: Total hours a vessels stay in port (buoy-to-buoy time) divided by the total number of vessels. Higher port efficiency can be measured by a shorter average ship turnaround time.
Non Working Time of Vessels At Berth: Non-working time is defined as sum of the “The Idle time from the time of berthing to start of work, idle time during ship operation and idle time taken from the time of completion of operations to sailing from berth together.

Turn Round Time (TRT):
The Turn Round Time of a vessel refers “to the time the vessel reports at the anchorage to the time it sails out from the berth”.
Average Waiting Rate: Total hours vessels wait for a berth (buoy-to-berth time) divided by total time at berth.
Gross Berth Productivity: Number of container moves or tonnes of cargo (for break-bulk and bulk cargoes) divided by the vessels total time at berth measured from first to last line.
Berth Occupancy Rate: Total time of vessels at berth divided by total berth hours available.
Working Time Over Time at Berth: Total time of vessels serviced at berth divided by total hours at berth. Reasons for non-working time may include labour agreements and work rules, rain, strikes, equipment failure, port operating schedules and holidays.
Ship Productivity Indicator: This refers to total number of moves (for containers) or tonnes handled (for break bulk and bulk cargoes) divided by total hours in port.
Tonnes per Gang Hour: Total tonnage handled divided by total number of gang hours worked
TEUs Per Crane Hour: Total number of TEUs handled divided by total number of crane-hours worked.
Tonnes per Ship-day: Total tonnage of cargo handled divided by total number of vessels in port.

Mihir Kumar Jhaveri, PMP, CSCM

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1 comments on "Seaport Concept: Functional Performance measure of Seaport"
  Commented by  smartKPIs, Analyst, eab group    | 08 12 2010 02:33:22 +0000
Hi Mihir,

Speaking of KPI for seaport. may be a good resource for you. It contains a user friendly library of well-documented performance measures.  At the moment it lists over 4500 KPI examples, grouped in 73 functional areas, as well as 83 industries and sub-categories.

KPI examples for the marine transport are available on this page   They include but not limited to:

# Total vessel deficiencies recorded
# Ballast water discharge violations
% Inspected ships found having deficiencies

In addition to examples of performance measures, also contains a catalogue of performance reports that illustrate the use of KPIs in practice.

Examples of such reports for marine transport and shipping are available on:

The website is updated daily with new content, so check it from time to time for additional content.

Please note that while examples of performance measures are useful to inform decisions, each performance measure needs to be selected and customized based on the objectives and priorities of each organisation.

Best regards,

Anita Liang
Research Analyst
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