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By : RanjithKumar Panjabikesan, Program Manager, SATYAM COMPUTERS
Activity:  1 comments  31208 views  last activity : 07 06 2010 20:18:04 +0000
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Who are Stakeholders ?\Stakeholders are the people associated with a project who play a central role in project success. Stakeholders are Individuals, groups or organizations who have interest in projects outcome and are therefore affected by the project.Stakeholders include people who could influence project decisions.Stakeholders also include people whose interests are critical to project success.Typically Project Stakeholders include Team Members, Sponsors, Senior Management, Customers, Government agencies and  competitors.The interest, Influence and Importance of various stakeholders in a project  could vary .What are the Characteristics of Stakeholders  ?Stakeholders  are classified based on the following characteristics a.     Interest        b.     Involvement c.      Affect d.     Position relative to the organization e.     Level  in the organization.
Classification of Stakeholders in various categories helps to get  a  better understanding of the stakeholders in terms of  how they are associated with the project.   How are Stakeholders classified  based on characteristics ?Based on the Characteristics, of Stakeholders could be classified into five Categories as  followsa.     Supporters or Opponents   - Supporter  is in favor of the project, Opponent  is a stakeholder with negative interest in the projectb.     Primary or Secondary -  Primary Stakeholders are those whose interests are critical to the success of the project and are ultimately affected by the project.  Typically Customers and End Users fall into this category. However, Primary Stakeholders may also include Project Sponsors , Project Managers,  Senior Management  and team members.  Secondary Stakeholders play an Intermediary role or help complete the project. Typically Administrative Staff, Financial or Legal Consultants fall into this categoryc.      Internal or External  -  Stakeholders are classified as Internal  or External depending on Position relative to the organization Internal Stakeholders are the stakeholders within the organization and are directly involved in developing the project . Project Managers and Team Members fall into this category.  External Stakeholders  are not a part of the organization but have an interest in the project. Government agencies, Customers and Competitors fall in this category.d.     Direct or Indirect  - Direct Stakeholders are affected by Day today Activities  of the project  - Typically Team Members fall in this category as the daily activities, schedule and client requirements affect them the most on a daily basis. Indirect Stakeholders are those who are ultimately affected by the project . Customers and End users fall into this category. This is because quality, price, packaging and availability of the end product affect them the most.e.     Operational or Strategic – Depending  upon the level in the organization, Stakeholders are classified as Operational or Strategic. Operational Stakeholders are actively involved in executing the project – Example Team MembersStrategic Stakeholders influences the decision made . This group comprises of Senior executives. Example CFO as  he as the authority to approve project budget.Summary
Stakeholder TypeClassified based on Example
Supporter or OpponentInterest 
Primary or SecondaryInterest, InvolvementPrimary : Customers End users, Project Sponsors , Project Managers,  Senior Management  and team members.  Secondary : Administrative Staff, Financial or Legal Consultants
Internal or External Position Relative to the OrganizationInternal :  Project Managers, Team MembersExternalGovernment agencies, Customers and Competitors 
Direct or Indirect AffectDirect :  Team MembersIndirect : Customers, End user
Operation or StrategicLevel in the OrganizationOperation : Team MembersStrategic : Senior Executives
  Commented by  varsha ., Technical manger(QMS)    | 11 17 2008 18:01:10 +0000
good one..........

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